Pelles C forum

C language => Expert questions => Topic started by: PabloMack on May 01, 2019, 02:52:16 pm

Title: Generating CheckSum for AMD64
Post by: PabloMack on May 01, 2019, 02:52:16 pm
I have written a working assembler and library manager targeting AMD64. I am currently writing a linker. The PE specification I am using says the following for the CheckSum field that is in the Optional Header that makes up part of the target EXE file:

"The image file checksum. The algorithm for computing the checksum is incorporated into IMAGHELP.DLL. The following are checked for validation at load time: all drivers, any DLL loaded at boot time, and any DLL that is loaded into a critical Windows process."

I noticed that there is a file called PellesC/Lib/Win64/imagehlp.lib in the Pelles C installation. Is this library capable of doing this function? If so, how would it be used?

Thanks.
Title: Re: Generating CheckSum for AMD64
Post by: TimoVJL on May 01, 2019, 04:49:27 pm
See An Analysis of the Windows PE Checksum Algorithm (https://www.codeproject.com/Articles/19326/An-Analysis-of-the-Windows-PE-Checksum-Algorithm)

EDIT: MS old ChkSum function (http://bytepointer.com/resources/microsoft_pe_checksum_algo_distilled.htm):
Code: [Select]
USHORT ChkSum(ULONG PartialSum, PUSHORT Source, ULONG Length)
{
    while (Length--)
    {
        PartialSum += *Source++;
        PartialSum = (PartialSum >> 16) + (PartialSum & 0xffff);
    }
    return (USHORT)(((PartialSum >> 16) + PartialSum) & 0xffff);
}
Length is ( filesize / 2 ).

To help optimizer:
Code: [Select]
USHORT ChkSum1(ULONG ulPartialSum, PUSHORT pSource, ULONG nLength)
{
do
{
if ((nLength))
ulPartialSum += *pSource++;
ulPartialSum = (ulPartialSum >> 16) + (ulPartialSum & 0xffff);
} while (nLength--);
return (USHORT)ulPartialSum;
}
Title: Re: Generating CheckSum for AMD64
Post by: PabloMack on May 01, 2019, 06:57:38 pm
Interesting. The PEChecksum.exe program might be able to assist. But it would be a manual operation which will require me to run the windowed program every time I do a new build. The article says that the book "The Art Of Computer Virus Research And Defense" contains the complete algorithm but it costs $36 on Amazon. It seems that may be the only way I am going to make the my linker able to generate an EXE without having to do that extra manual step.

The source code for PECheckSum is C++ (not C) so it can't be used with Pelles C. Perhaps it can be used with the OpenWatcom tool chain that I've been using since it also supports C++ but it is only 32-bit so I don't know if it cold work on 64-bit executables. My linker is written in C (not C++) so I'm not sure what I want to do. The source code only shows how to call the DLL which is where all the action happens.
Title: Re: Generating CheckSum for AMD64
Post by: frankie on May 01, 2019, 08:32:55 pm
Start reading the imaghelp.h functions reference on msdn (https://docs.microsoft.com/en-us/windows/desktop/debug/imagehlp-functions).
Then read carefully MapFileAndCheckSum() (https://docs.microsoft.com/en-us/windows/desktop/api/Imagehlp/nf-imagehlp-mapfileandchecksuma) and CheckSumMappedFile (https://docs.microsoft.com/en-us/windows/desktop/api/Imagehlp/nf-imagehlp-checksummappedfile).
You may prefer the second, so after mapping your exe, and after got the chechsum through CheckSumMappedFile(), you can patch it adding the Checksum.
Title: Re: Generating CheckSum for AMD64
Post by: PabloMack on May 02, 2019, 10:49:38 pm
The following web page seems to explain the algorithm while the link above
just talks about using some test programs.

http://bytepointer.com/resources/microsoft_pe_checksum_algo_distilled.htm

I see above that TimoVJL edited his post and it shows similar information .
But the complete algorithm seems to add the length after the partial is done.

Thanks to you both.
Title: Re: Generating CheckSum for AMD64
Post by: frankie on May 03, 2019, 12:38:48 pm
Sample code:

Code: [Select]
#include <windows.h>
#include <imagehlp.h>
#pragma comment(linker, "imagehlp.lib")
#include <stdio.h>

int main(int argc, char *argv[])
{
HANDLE FileHandle, MappingHandle;
LPVOID BaseAddress;
DWORD FileLength;
DWORD CheckSum;
DWORD HeaderSum;
PIMAGE_NT_HEADERS pNThdr;

// Open the file for read access
FileHandle = CreateFileW(L"file_to_check.exe", GENERIC_READ | GENERIC_WRITE,
FILE_SHARE_READ | FILE_SHARE_WRITE, NULL, OPEN_EXISTING, FILE_ATTRIBUTE_NORMAL, NULL);
if (FileHandle == INVALID_HANDLE_VALUE)
{
fprintf(stderr, "Error opening file!\n");
return 1;
}

// Create a file mapping
MappingHandle = CreateFileMapping(FileHandle, NULL, PAGE_READWRITE, 0, 0, NULL);
if (!MappingHandle)
{
fprintf(stderr, "Error mapping file!\n");
CloseHandle(FileHandle);
return 1;
}

// Map a view of the file
BaseAddress = MapViewOfFile(MappingHandle, FILE_MAP_READ|FILE_MAP_WRITE, 0, 0, 0);
if (BaseAddress == NULL)
{
fprintf(stderr, "Error mapping view of file!\n");
CloseHandle(MappingHandle);
CloseHandle(FileHandle);
return 1;
}

// Get the length of the file in bytes and call ImageHlp function
FileLength = GetFileSize(FileHandle, NULL);
pNThdr = CheckSumMappedFile(BaseAddress, FileLength, &HeaderSum, &CheckSum);

int res;

if (!pNThdr)
{
//Function failed
fprintf(stderr, "Error checking file! Maybe the file isn't an executable.\n");
res = 1; //error
}
else
{
res = 0; //OK

if (HeaderSum)
{
//File has already a checksum.
//Check for correctness, print report and exit.
if (HeaderSum != CheckSum)
printf("File checksum exist and is wrong.\n"
"Value = 0x%08x, should be 0x%08x.\n", HeaderSum, CheckSum);
else
printf("File checksum exist and is OK. Value = 0x%08x.\n", HeaderSum);
}
else
{
//Set checksum
printf("Setting file checksum to value = 0x%08x.\n", CheckSum);
pNThdr->OptionalHeader.CheckSum = CheckSum;
}
}

// Cleanup and exit
UnmapViewOfFile(BaseAddress);
CloseHandle(MappingHandle);
CloseHandle(FileHandle);

return res;
}

I discourage the use of hand brew checksum code, because in case of changes made by MS it could go wrong.
It's always preferable to use the OS provided functions.
Title: Re: Generating CheckSum for AMD64
Post by: PabloMack on May 03, 2019, 04:16:10 pm
Thanks Frankie.

If I build this as a console program, I get the following failure:

Building main.obj.
C:\Program Files\PellesC\Include\Win\winnt.h(105): fatal error #1014: #error: "No Target Architecture".
*** Error code: 1 ***
Done.

If I build this as a Windows64 program, I get the following failure:

Building PE_ChkSum.obj.
Building PE_ChkSum.exe.
POLINK: error: Unresolved external symbol 'WinMain' - referenced from 'crt64.lib(_wincrt0.obj)'.
POLINK: fatal error: 1 unresolved external(s).
*** Error code: 1 ***
Done.
Title: Re: Generating CheckSum for AMD64
Post by: frankie on May 03, 2019, 05:20:18 pm
Compile as console, and don't forget to enable MS extensions (/Ze switch from command line).  ;)
Title: Re: Generating CheckSum for AMD64
Post by: PabloMack on May 07, 2019, 08:51:31 pm
Okay. I checked MS extensions and now it builds with no errors. I also checked Full Debug
and selected X64 for a target and rebuilt but when I press F5 to debug, I get the message:

The file 'FileName.exe" cointains no debugging information! Do you want to continue?

If I continue I only get assembly. I've successfully used the debugger before and I don't
know what I am now doing wrong.
Title: Re: Generating CheckSum for AMD64
Post by: frankie on May 08, 2019, 10:22:17 am
Enable debug also in linker tab.
Title: Re: Generating CheckSum for AMD64
Post by: PabloMack on May 09, 2019, 05:26:05 pm
That fixed it. Thanks!